Dr. L. Carol Summers

Samuel Chiles Mitchell-Jacob Billikopf Professor of History and Global Studies
Global Studies Concentration Advisor: Politics and Governance, Culture and Communications


Carol Summers is currently researching and thinking about patriotic savings programs (and the emergence of new formal sector public banking) across Britain’s world (Uganda, Britain, Canada and beyond) from World War II into the 1950s. To date, she has published articles and chapters on late colonial Uganda, focusing on how Uganda’s activists debated ideas of citizenship, democracy, loyalty and patriotism in combination with local normative values of family, clan and kingdom, then deploying their critiques as part of their efforts to reconstruct a moral and modern kingdom. Earlier work, including her two books, focused on colonial Zimbabwe, first examining the ideology and social policy behind segregation (From Civilization to Segregation 1994), and then looking specifically at how Zimbabweans struggled over schools (Colonial Lessons, 2002). Before that, her earliest work was on syphilis and reproductive policy in the construction of colonial Uganda.

Grants and Fellowships

American Council of Learned Societies Sabbatical Fellowship (2007-2008)

American Philosophical Society Sabbatical Fellowship (2007-2008)

National Humanities Center Fellow (2003-2004)

Princeton University Davis Center Fellow (1999)

National Academy of Education Spencer Fellow (1995)

Institute for Advanced Study in the African Humanities Fellow, Northwestern University (1995)


University of Richmond Distinguished Educator (2001)



"Scandal and Mass Politics: Buganda's 1941 Nnamasole Crisis" International Journal of African Historical Studies 51: 1 (2018) 63-83

“All the Kabaka’s Wives: Marital Claims in Buganda’s 1953-5 Kabaka Crisis” Journal of African History 58:1 (2017) 107-27

Adolescence versus Politics: Metaphors in Late Colonial UgandaJournal of the History of Ideas 78:1 (January 2017) 117-136

"Column: From Plato to Ebola?: Introducing World History in a First Year Seminars on Epidemics." The Middle Ground Journal 12 (2016): 1-10.

Slander, Buzz and Spin: Telegrams, Politics and Global Communications in the Uganda Protectorate, 1945-9,” Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 16:3 (Winter 2015).

"Local Critiques of Global Development: Patriotism in Late Colonial Buganda." International Journal of African Historical Studies 47, no. 1 (2014): 21-35.

“Boys, Brats and Education: Reproducing White Maturityin Colonial Zimbabwe, 1915-1935” Settler and Colonial Studies 1:1 (2011)

“Catholic Action and Ugandan Radicalism: Political Activism in Buganda, 1930-1950” Journal of Religion in Africa 39:1 (2009) 60-90

Subterranean Evil’ and ‘Tumultuous Riot’ in Buganda: Authority and Alienation at King’s College, Budo, 1942”  Journal of African History  47 (2006) 93-113

“Radical Rudeness: Ugandan Social Critiques during the 1940s” Journal of Social History 39:3 (2006) 741-770

Grandfathers, Grandsons, Morality and Radical  Politics in Late Colonial Buganda”  International Journal of African Historical Studies 38:3 (2005) 427-447

"Young Buganda and Old Boys: Youth, Generational Transition and Ideas of Leadership in Buganda, 1920-1949” Africa Today 51:3 (Spring 2005) 109-128

"Mission Boys, Civilized Men and Marriage: Educated African Men in the Missions of Southern Rhodesia 1920-1945" Journal of Religious History 23:1 (February 1999) 75-91

"Giving Orders: Controversies over Africans' authority in development programs in rural Southern Rhodesia, 1928-1934" International Journal of African Historical Studies 31:2 (1998) 279-300

"Demanding Schools: The Umchingwe project and African men's struggles for education in Southern Rhodesia, 1928-1934" African Studies Review 40:2 (September 1997) 117-139

"'If you can educate the Native Woman...': Debates over the schooling and education of girls and women in Southern Rhodesia 1900-1934" History of Education Quarterly 36:4 (Winter 1996) 449-471

"Educational Controversies: African Activism and Educational Strategies in Southern Rhodesia, 1920-1934" Journal of Southern African Studies 20 (March 1994) 3-25

"Intimate Colonialism: The Imperial Production of Reproduction in Uganda, 1907 to 1925" Signs 16:4 (Summer, 1991) 787-807


Uganda after World War II”  in Re-Thinking Africa and World War II, Carolyn Brown and Judith Byfield, ed.s. 2014, Cambridge University Press.

Education and Literacy” in John Parker and Richard Reid, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 319-337.

Youth, Elders and Metaphors of Political Change in Late Colonial Buganda” in  Generations Past: Youth in East African History, Andrew Burton, and Helene Charton-Bigot, ed.s (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010) 175-195.

Tickets, Concerts and School Fees: Faith and Finance in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-40” in Conversion: Old Worlds and New Anthony Grafton and Kenneth Mills, ed.s, (Rochester: U. of Rochester Press, 2003) 241-270

Force and Colonial Development in Eastern Uganda” in J.M. Bahemuka and JL Brockington, ed.s, East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2002) 181-207


Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University

M.A., Johns Hopkins University

B.A., Swarthmore College

Contact Information

317 Ryland Hall
(804) 289-8976
(804) 287-1992 (Fax)

Areas of Expertise

Colonial Africa
History of Education
Nationalism and Decolonization