Rebecca Crootof

Assistant Professor of Law


Rebecca Crootof is an Assistant Professor of Law. Dr. Crootof's primary areas of research include technology law, international law, and torts; her written work explores questions stemming from the iterative relationship between law and technology, often in light of social changes sparked by increasingly autonomous systems, artificial intelligence, cyberspace, robotics, and the Internet of Things. She is interested in the various ways both domestic and international legal regimes respond to and shape technological development, particularly in the armed conflict context.

Dr. Crootof earned a B.A. cum laude in English with a minor in Mathematics at Pomona College; a J.D. at Yale Law School; and a PhD at Yale Law School, where she graduated in the first class of PhDs in law awarded in the United States. Her dissertation, Keeping Pace: New Technology and the Evolution of International Law, discusses how technology fosters change in the international legal order, both by creating a need for new regulations and by altering how sources of international governance develop and interact. She has published with the Cornell Law Review, the Duke Law Review, the Pennsylvania Law Review, the Harvard National Security Journal, the Yale Journal of International Law, and the Yale Law Journal; and written for Slate, Lawfare, and Just Security.

Dr. Crootof served as a law clerk for the late Judge Mark R. Kravitz of the U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut and for Judge John M. Walker, Jr. of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. She consults for the Institute for Defense Analyses and is a member of the New York Bar, the Equal Rights Center's Board of Directors, the Center for New American Security's Task Force on Artificial Intelligence and National Security, and the Permanent Mission of the Principality of Liechtenstein to the United Nations' Council of Advisers on the Application of the Rome Statute to Cyberwarfare.

She enjoys skiing, hiking, and reading science fiction "for work."


Workshop Participant, "Artificial Intelligence and International Stability," Center for New American Security & Perry World House (July 2020)

Workshop Participant, "Applying International Law in Cyberspace: Protections and Prevention," Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (June 2020)

Workshop Presenter, "Autonomous Weapon Systems," Expert Discussion, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (June 2020)

Workshop Presenter, "Draft Principles for Munitions and Weapons Systems with Autonomous Functionalities," Center for a New American Security (May 2020)

Workshop Presenter, "Technology Alliance Initiative Inaugural Workshops," Center for a New American Security (May 2020)

Guest Lecturer, "Killer Robots Today," AI & the Law: Science Fact and Science Fiction, University of Michigan Law School (November 2019)

Guest Lecturer, "New Technologies and the Law of Armed Conflict," International Law, International Arbitration, University of Richmond School of Law (November 2019)

Panelist, "Human Dignity, Agency & Algorithmic Bias," Washington and Lee Law Faculty Workshop, Washington and Lee School of Law (October 2019)

Presenter, "War Torts: Accountability for Autonomous Weapon Systems," Digital Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Colloquium, Fordham Law School (October 2019)

Panelist, "State and Local Privacy - Bans and Regulation," The Near Future of U.S. Privacy Law, University of Colorado Law School (September 2019)


Annual Meeting Program Committee Member, American Society of International Law

Editorial Board Member, Journal of National Security Law and Policy (2019 - present)

Council of Advisers on the Application of the Rome Statute to Cyberwarfare, Permanent Mission of the Principality of Liechtenstein to the United Nations (2019 - present)

Member of the Task Force on AI and National Security, Center for a New American Security (2018 - present)

Associate Editor on AI and Law, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (2017 - present)

Board of Directors, Equal Rights Center (2016 - present)

Alumni Admissions Volunteer, Pomona College (2003 - present)

Bar Admissions

New York

Professional Experience

Affiliate Fellow (2019 - present)
Information Society Project, Yale Law School, New Haven, CT

Assistant Professor (2019 - present)
University of Richmond School of Law, Richmond, VA

Legal and Ethical Consultant (2018 - present)
Institute for Defense Analyses, Joint Advanced Warfighting Division, Alexandria, VA

Executive Director (2016 - 2019)
Information Society Project, Yale Law School, New Haven, CT

Research Scholar and Lecturer in Law (2016 - 2019)
Yale Law School, New Haven, CT

Part-Time Acting Instructor (2015 - 2016)
Yale Law School, New Haven, CT

Clerk to the Hon. John M. Walker Jr. (2012 - 2013)
U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, New Haven, CT

Clerk to the Hon. Mark Kravitz (2011 - 2012)
U.S. District Court, District of Connecticut, New Haven, CT


Ph.D., Yale University 2016

J.D., Yale Law School 2011

B.A., Pomona College 2003
English, minor in Mathematics

Contact Information

Room 222, Law School
(804) 662 3048

Areas of Expertise

Public International Law
International Humanitarian Law